International efforts to realize the universal right to health, especially for the bottom billion countries, are only recently making progress, with a great deal of further work remaining. While there has been steady progress in many of the United Nations health-focused Millennium Development Goals, there is still a long way to go. Disparities remain with regard to water quality and sanitation, maternal and child health and various zoonotic diseases. In international law, many questions remain, including for the further development and implementation of the WHO Tobacco Convention, the Espoo Convention and its Kiev Protocol and the Minamata Convention. With likely agreement on a global sustainable development goal on health, there is a pressing need for cutting-edge new international legal research and education, including legal expertise, capacity and advice.